On February 6, 2024, the New York State Department of Financial Services (“DFS”) released “pre-proposed” consolidated rulemaking related to the business practices of Pharmacy Benefit Managers (“PBMs”) licensed to operate in New York.

The draft regulations represent DFS’s latest attempt to promulgate PBM market conduct rules following state PBM licensing legislation that was enacted in 2021. In August 2023, DFS issued proposed regulations addressing consumer protection, conflicts of interest, and transparency issues related to PBM industry practices, including a dispensing fee of $10.18 per drug claim to be paid to pharmacies, but the proposed regulations were later withdrawn by the agency in October 2023 following the public comment period.

DFS’s announcement of the draft regulations and pre-proposal comment period stated that the draft regulations were informed by DFS’s “extensive outreach to industry, health plans, pharmacy groups, state and federal regulators, and the general public.”

In 2021, Congress enacted the Corporate Transparency Act (the “CTA”) to “better enable critical national security, intelligence, and law enforcement efforts to counter money laundering, the financing of terrorism, and other illicit activity.”[1] The CTA, which became effective January 1, 2024,[2] is described, in detail, in a series of Proskauer alerts compiled by Proskauer’s CTA Task Force. The CTA will create a national registry of the “beneficial owners” and “company applicants”[3] of millions[4] of entities across the country. A reporting company must disclose certain information about its beneficial owners and (for entities formed in 2024 and later) company applicants, including: (i) legal name; (ii) date of birth; (iii) residential address (or business address for certain company applicants); (iv) unique identifying number from a non-expired government-issued identification document; and (v) an image of such identification document.[5] In addition, states are following the Federal government’s lead and have adopted similar regulatory regimes; last month, for example, New York enacted the LLC Transparency Act, which comes into effect in December 2024.

On Tuesday, January 16, 2024, Governor Kathy Hochul released the SFY 2025 New York State Executive Budget (“Executive Budget”). While still subject to legislative approval, the Executive Budget incorporates the recently approved amendment (“Waiver Amendment”) to New York’s Medicaid Section 1115 Demonstration that includes $7.5 billion in Medicaid investments over

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) has expanded upon its recent Healthcare Sector Cybersecurity Concept Paper (which we covered in a prior blog post), issuing cybersecurity performance goals (“CPGs”) for the healthcare and public health (“HPH”) sector. These CPGs aim to help healthcare organizations protect against

Following New York State Governor Kathy Hochul’s proposal in February of this year (see our previous alert), the New York legislature passed and Governor Hochul signed a law on May 3, 2023, which significantly increases the state’s focus and visibility into physician practice management change‑of‑control transactions.[1] New York’s statute reflects a growing trend of states taking note of transactions that previously were not regulated by state administrative agencies. As we await the promulgation of regulations from the New York State Department of Health (“DOH”), we examine here how New York’s law compares to similar laws in other states, and describe precautions that operators in the physician management space — as well as those who do businesses with such operators — should take to safeguard themselves against major disruptions to operations.

On July 27, 2023, California’s Office of Health Care Access and Information (the “Office”) released its long-awaited proposed regulations on the notice requirements for material health care transactions in California. The anticipated regulations follow the passing of SB 184 on June 30, 2022, which, in part, created the Office and granted it the authority to collect and analyze data related to health care costs, specifically via monitoring mergers and acquisitions in the health care industry. Following the lead of states like New York, whose wide-range health care transaction requirements were discussed in a previous blog post, California seeks to address the increasing costs of health care services by imposing significant notice and review requirements for mergers and acquisitions beginning in 2024.

On June 16, 2023, the Supreme Court (the “Court”) in United States ex rel. Polansky v. Executive Health Resources affirmed the federal government’s power to dismiss a False Claims Act (“FCA”) action brought under the qui tam provisions whenever it chooses to intervene. Polansky is the second FCA case this summer in which the Court has ruled in favor of the federal government—i.e., the Department of Justice, acting through the Attorney General (“DOJ”). Writing for an 8-1 majority, Justice Kagan explained that DOJ receives considerable deference, even over the objection of the individual who raised the action (i.e., the relator or whistleblower), to dismiss cases that are inconsistent with DOJ’s interests.

In a unanimous opinion, the United States Supreme Court (“Court”) recently held that the False Claims Act’s (“FCA”) scienter requirement refers to a defendant’s knowledge and subjective beliefs, rather than what a hypothetical reasonable person could have known or believed.  As supported by the text of the FCA itself and by its common‑law roots, the Court explained that the “focus is what a defendant thought when submitting a claim—not what a defendant may have thought after submitting it.”  Consequently, the Court vacated the holding of the Seventh Circuit and remanded the matter for further proceedings consistent with the Court’s opinion.  Because the Seventh Circuit had affirmed a Federal district court’s grant of the defendants’ motions for summary judgment, the Court’s opinion effectively revives the FCA claim against the defendants.

On April 5, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) released the 2024 Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Benefit Programs Final Rule (“Final Rule”), which will be codified at 42 C.F.R. Parts 417, 422, 423, 455, and 460. The Final Rule adopts a host of reforms aimed at improving health care access, quality, and equity for Medicare beneficiaries that receive coverage through Part C (“Medicare Advantage” or “MA”) and prescription drug benefits through Part D. As discussed below, the Final Rule also has some notable omissions compared to what CMS previously proposed in December (“Proposed Rule,” published at 87 Fed. Reg. 79452 (2022)). The Final Rule is effective June 5, 2023.

In an important decision limiting the reach of the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(b)) (“AKS”) and its application to violations of the False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. 3729, et seq.) (“FCA”), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (“Sixth Circuit”) recently contended that, “[w]hile the word remuneration may be broad, it customarily requires a payment or transfer of some kind,” and mandated “but-for” causation standard for determining whether claims paid by Federal health care programs were tainted by an AKS violation such that they violated the FCA.  See U.S. ex rel. Martin et al. v. Hathaway, et al., Case No. 22-1463, at 11 (6th Cir.) (appeal from 1:19-cv-00915, ECF Doc. No. 108 (W.D. Mich.)) (emphasis added).